Post created on: 8/1/2020
DNS is a decentralised naming system for the internet like an address book. You enter an address into the search bar and it does a DNS lookup meaning it will find the IP address of the address you entered. A reverse lookup is the opposite of this figuring out the domain name associated with a given IP address.
Domain names are read right to left by the browser and are made of several parts e.g. example given by MDN web docs
The first part in this case
org is known as the TLD (Top Level Domain) which tells the user the purpose behind the domain name. Some are generic like
.com, .net and do not need to meet any particular criteria others are stricter e.g.
.gov- this is only allowed for government departments
.edu- for educational and academic institutions
local TLDs e.g. .de, .fr- these require the serviec to be hosted in a certain country or in a given language.
When you 'own' a domain name you pay for the right to use it for 1+ years. They are bought through companies known as registrars e.g. 123-reg/godaddy among many others out there use registrates to keep track of the information connecting to your domain name.
This requires that when you register a domain name you provide accurate information which is published in whois data for legal and admin purposes, putting your personal information out there which is where whois privacy comes in.
Domain privacy aka Whois privacy is offered by several domain name registrars in which users buy privacy from the company who will replace the user information in WHOIS with the information of a forwarding address. Some personal information is collected by the registrats e.g. name, email, address to provide the service to you. It is also well noting that some TLDs have privacy caveats.