These are used to store and keep track of information

ECMAScript is the standard and JavaScript is the implementation. JavaScript has become the dominant in web development in the frontend with progress in the support of newer EMCAScript versions being supported in browsers and the use of frameworks like Vue, React and Angular. On the backend Node.js is used in a majority of cases.

parseInt()- converts strings to integers parseFloat()- converts to decimal numbers

Math.random() - generates a random number between 0 & 1 Math.floor() - rounds number down Math.ceil() - rounds number up


The key part of JavaScript - a set of instructions to be used over and over again.

function expression is a function assigned to a variable e.g.

var myFunction = function(){
    alert('This is a test')

myFunction() // then you need to call or invoke function

Function can be anonymous as above or they can be passed parameters e.g.

myFunction2(para1, para2){
  // do something

return keyword = function will stop when it hits return keyword so it will be the last line of function. It can only return one thing - a string, number, Boolean value or the contents of a variable.

Scope is a key thing to remember e.g. global means it can be accessed everywhere local means it is limited to the function in which it is declared.


if(condition is true){
    // do something
} else {
    // do something

Comparison operators

  • </<= - less than/less than or equal to
  • >/>= - greater than/greater than or equal to
  • === - strict equal to
  • !== - strict not equal to

Logical operators

  • && - and
  • || - or

Truthy - a value considered true in a Boolean context

  • true
  • any integer
  • any string
  • floating point numbers
  • {}
  • []

Falsy - a value that evaluates to false in a Boolean context in JS these are:

  • false
  • null
  • NaN (Not a Number)
  • undefined
  • empty string
  • 0 (integer/floating value)

Loops, Arrays and Objects

Loops are a way of repeating code so are particularly useful for any repetitive tasks. There are different types of loops which one you use depends on your use case.

For Loops

A for loop will run until the condition evaluates to false.

for(var numbers = 0; numbers < 20; numbers++){

While Loops

The code inside the loop will run over and over as the condition is met

while(condition here is true){
  // Do something

var count = 0
while(count < 25){
    count += 1

Do While Loops

These will run until the condition evaluates to false

var myNumber = 0;

do {
    myNumber += 1
} while(myNumber < 10)

JavaScript and the DOM

Getting and setting text

There are a couple of ways to get and update text using JavaScript.

  • textContent - this will get the content of all elements including any hidden elements
  • innerText - similar to textContent but it will ignore any hidden elements
  • innerHTML - this functions the same way as textContent it will read and replace elements on a page. It will replace everything between the opening and closing tag.
let myHeading = document.querySelector('h1')
// this gets the text
// this is assigning of a new value and changes text
myHeading.textContent = 'This is my new header'

You have <ul> element with <li> and assign a new value it will replace existing values e.g.

let list = document.querySelector('ul')
ul.innerHTML = `<li>new list value</li>`

Selecting Elements

There are a number of ways to select elements with javascript but the two most commonly used are:

  • document.getElementById('name')
  • document.querySelector('any css selector')

getElementById - select an element based on its id

<input type="text" id="firstname" name="firstname">

var firstName = document.getElementById('firstname')

querySelector - this will match the first element of given selector

querySelectorAll - this will match all elements of given selector and return a nodelist. (A nodelist could be a static collection meaning any changes to DOM are not reflected or it could be live collection e.g. Node.childnodes so DOM changes are shown in the collection. convert to an array?)

getElementsByClassName - this will return an HTMLCollection of matching elements

getElementsByTagName - this returns an HTMLCollection which is 'live' meaning any updates to DOM are automatically reflected

Creating elements

To create new elements use


let newParagraph = document.createElement('p');
newParagraph.textContent = 'This is my new paragraph';

// Elements need to be added to the DOM before it appears on the page

Array Methods

An array is a way of storing multiple elements I built a Vue app to try and help me remember these called array-helper

push - add element to an array pop - remove element from an array indexOf - gives index value of a given element (starting from 0) shift - removes first element of an array unshift - add elements to the front of an array join - add elements of an array together in a string sort - sorts an array alphabetically concat - join two arrays together slice - return a copy of portion of an array into a new array. It does not modify existing array splice - changes array contents by removing existing elements and/or adding new elements

Array.from - converts an array-like structure into an actual array


The event interface represents an event that happens in the DOM. These can either be user generated e.g. mouse click or keyboard press or through APIs e.g. a paused video.

There are many types of events e.g. click, mouseover, mouseoff, keypress (see MDN list)

Event handler/listener - these are the functions that handles or responds to the event

Event target - this is the object on which the event occured or is associated with. When referring to an event both the type and target need to be included e.g. a click event on a button or load on a window object.